A comprehensive resource for safe and responsible laser use

Canada: Pilot goes to doctor; subsequent flight canceled after laser illuminates WestJet

Green laser light aimed at a WestJet aircraft on August 22 2016 caused a pilot to seek medical attention after the flight landed in Fort McMurray, Alberta. This, in turn, caused a subsequent flight to be canceled until a new pilot could be brought in.

The severity of the medical complaint, and the pilot’s diagnosis and treatment, were not known. A WestJet spokesperson cited privacy concerns.

The Boeing 737 flight originated in Toronto. The laser was said to have come from “a wooded area in the middle of nowhere”, when the plane was at about 3,500 feet altitude.

According to CBC, there were 40 laser incidents reported in Alberta in May 2016, and 500 incidents in all of Canada in 2015. (According to the Ottawa Citizen, there were 502 laser illuminations in the Transport Canada CADORS database in 2014, and 663 incidents in 2015.)

Royal Canadian Mounted Police from the regional municipality of Wood Buffalo were investigating the incident.

From CBC, CTV News and the National Post

Canada: Teen points laser sight on pellet gun at police helicopter

A teenager was arrested after aiming the green beam from a pellet gun’s laser sight at an Air2 police helicopter in Vaughn, Canada, a town just north of Toronto, on August 16 2016.

An infrared camera onboard the aircraft helped the crew locate the source of the laser beam. Ground officers found the pellet gun, which 19-year-old Nicholas Caranci had thrown to the ground as he ran away. The IR camera helped the helicopter crew direct officers to the teen’s location.

Caranci laser Air2
In an attempt to escape arrest, Nicholas Carianci ran from the court at right and hopped over a fence, after throwing his pellet gun with a laser sight into weeds (green circle). Thanks to the helicopter IR surveillance camera, police were able to pick up both the teen and the pellet gun.


Caranci was arrested and charged with mischief endangering life, unlawfully engaging in behavior that endangers an aircraft, and projecting a bright light source into navigable airspace.

From the Mirror

Canada: Winnipeg teen aims at police helicopter, gets one year conditional discharge

Akshay Sharma was given a one year conditional discharge sentence, plus 30 hours of community service, on December 21 2015 for aiming a laser pointer at a Winnipeg city police helicopter in June 2015. The aircrew was temporarily distracted and disoriented.

Sharma’s lawyer said the teen “was goofing around to see how high [the laser] could project into the sky”, and did not intend to create a hazard.

From the
Winnipeg Sun

Canada: UPDATED - Pilots suffer itching, irritation from laser strike while landing in Ottawa

Two WestJet Boeing 737 pilots suffered “minor itching and irritation” after they were illuminated by a green laser beam while landing at an Ottawa’s Macdonald Cartier International airport.

The incident occurred September 23 2014. The laser was pointed at the plane for around 2-4 minutes. Police are looking for the perpetrator.

Earlier in the month, on September 5, a Porter Airlines flight from Toronto was flashed with a green laser as it approached the Ottawa runway, according to CBC News.

A WestJet spokesperson said the pilots were cleared to fly and there was no permanent damage: “... there are real health repercussions for being exposed to a laser beam, so we do have a protocol in place where they will get checked out and there is also follow-ups.”
Click to read more...

Canada: Man arrested for aiming laser at police helicopter in Richmond Hill; pilot seeks treatment

An unidentified man was arrested after an Air 2 police helicopter pilot reported being temporarily blinded by a laser beam at about 11:30 pm on August 24 2014, while flying over Richmond Hill, in the Toronto metropolitan area.

The pilot was able to identify the source location of the laser. He then landed and sought medical treatment.

Ground officers stopped a vehicle and arrested the man.

From CTV News Toronto

Canada: Two separate incidents in one evening, in Regina

Aircraft over Regina were targeted twice in one night, in two separate incidents on the late evening of August 17 and the early morning of August 18 2014.

In the first incident, around 11:30 pm, a laser beam was aimed at the cockpit of a landing plane. Police were able to find five youths on a roof in south Regina. Of the three boys and two girls, one of the boys had a laser pointer. No one was charged though police were still investigating.

In the second incident, just before 2:30 am, the laser light came from north Regina and was aimed at a plane flying over south Regina. No suspects were identified.

From CBC News Saskatchewan

Canada: Medical helicopter lased twice over Ottawa

Transport Canada reported that an Ornge medical helicopter was struck twice by a green laser beam at about 2 am on May 30 2014, as it flew five km northeast of Ottawa airport.

There were no reports of the laser’s effect immediately available.

According to the Ottawa Citizen, “a similar 2009 lasing incident left an Ornge pilot with serious eye damage and grounded for several weeks after he was hit by a laser beam while flying at about 2,000 feet over the Gatineau Hills.”

Statistics from Transport Canada list 461 reported laser incidents in 2013 -- an increase from the 357 reported in 2012. The Air Canada Pilots’ Association has asked for criminal penalties and more government control over laser devices.

From the Ottawa Citizen

Canada: Pilots, drivers report laser flashes near Calgary airport

A green laser was pointed at two commercial aircraft pilots at about 10:30 pm on May 13 2014. The laser came from the Signal Hill community of Calgary, located about 8 miles (13 km) from Calgary International Airport. A Calgary Police Service helicopter was dispatched but did not see the laser light.

About one hour later, a driver reported being blinded by a light in the same area.

Police asked anyone with information to call their Crime Stoppers line.

From 660 News

Canada: Two Edmonton incidents highlight increased aiming at police

Police in Edmonton held a news conference to discuss the increasing risk to their flight operations. As of September 9 2013, there have been 10 such incidents. This compares with 9 incidents in all of 2012, and 4 incidents in 2011.

These are the two most recent Edmonton incidents:

  • On September 6 2013, the city police Air-1 helicopter was repeatedly hit by a laser in the west Edmonton area. Two teens were arrested, a 17-year-old male and a 15-year-old female; charges are pending.

  • On September 7 2013, multiple arrests were made after Air-1 was hit for several minutes in north Edmonton. Three males, aged 18, 19 and 20, were charged with assault with a weapon, possession of an offensive weapon, endangering the safety of an aircraft in flight, and creating a hazard to aviation safety.

During the press event, police said that users ignore warnings that come with lasers, that they often don’t realize or understand the hazard, that a ban on lasers is not the answer, and that their pilots do fly with laser protective eyewear. Details are at this LaserPointerSafety.com story.

From the Edmonton Journal and Edmonton Sun. Thanks to Keith Murland for bringing this to our attention.

Canada: Teen arrested in Calgary for temporarily blinding police pilot with laser

19-year-old Michael Sanche was arrested on five charges after illuminating a Calgary police helicopter three times on August 1 2013. Police said there is no known motive although alcohol may have been a factor.

Calgary police laser protective anti-laser goggle glasses
A Calgary police officer holds up protective glasses of the type used by air crews to protect from laser pointers and other bright lights


During the incident, the pilot put on protective eyewear specifically designed for laser incidents. The tactical flight officer was said to have “extreme anxiety” and was temporarily flashblinded during the incident. Afterwards he had “spotty blindness and a minor headache.” Police said the Class 3 laser was capable of causing permanent blindness and burning skin.

Click to read more...

Canada: Richmond Hill teen arrested for aiming laser pen at police helicopter

Nima Serghani, 19, was arrested on charges that include mischief endangering life, for aiming a laser pen at the York Regional Police Helicopter on July 21 2013. The pilot, who was helping with a weapons call, left the area to ensure the safety of the crew and aircraft. Ground officers entered a home, found a bright-light source and drug-related items. A court date was set for August 2013.

Pic 2013-07-31 at 5.34.52 PM
A video taken from the helicopter is at the York Region link.


From 680news.com and YorkRegion.com. Thanks also to Kevin Smith for informing us as to which York (U.K. or Canada) was involved!

Canada: Oshawa man facing charges (for daytime lasing?) of helicopter

A 44-year-old Oshawa man was charged with assault with a weapon, mischief endangering life, common nuisance and obstructing police after a June 14 2013 incident. The Durham Regional Police Service helicopter Air-1 was hit by a laser beam several times while patrolling above Oshawa.

Unusually, the laser illumination was said to have taken place at noon, according toThe Star.

Crew on the helicopter directed ground officers to a parking lot where Richard McIntosh was arrested. His green Class IIIB laser was seized by police.

From The Star and 680 News

Commentary from LaserPointerSafety.com: Although The Star stated the incident took place at noon, this could be a misreading of the time on the police report. We have seen other stories where one news outlet said an incident occurred during daytime while others reported (correctly) that the time was, for example, 12:45 AM and not 12:45 PM.

Canada: Teen arrested in Winnipeg for aiming at police helicopter

An unnamed 19-year-old was arrested for aiming a laser multiple times at a Winnipeg Police Service helicopter on July 25 2012. The lasing happened as the AIR1 helicopter was breaking up a bonfire party in Omand Park. According to CJOB, the crew was able to shield their eyes.

The man was arrested on unspecified charges, most likely assault with a weapon and charges under the Aeronautics Act for aiming a bright light at an aircraft.

This was the fourth lasing incident for AIR 1 since February 1 2011.

From the
Winnipeg Free Press and CJOB

Canada: Calgary man gets house arrest in 2010 helicopter lasing case

A Calgary man was sentenced on June 18 2012 to two months house arrest, four months with a 10 pm to 5 am curfew and six months of probation, all resulting from an 2010 laser illumination of a Calgary police helicopter. In addition, Jason John McConnell, 35, will perform 25 hours of community service, will receive counseling, and is not permitted to possess a laser pointer.Click to read more...

Canada: 15 hours community service for March 2011 Winnipeg lasing

Sheldon Friesen, 27, pleaded guilty on April 30 2012 to directing a bright light at an aircraft. He had lased a police helicopter three times on March 10 2011 with a laser pointer he purchased for 99 cents on eBay.

He was sentenced to 15 hours community service work. He had faced a maximum penalty of CDN $100,000 and up to five years in prison.

Friesen told the court he was testing the range of the laser and did not realize that aiming at a helicopter could be dangerous. The judge agreed, saying “You do seem like you were genuinely surprised by the consequences of your actions.”

From the Winnipeg Sun. The original March 2011 story in LaserPointerSafety.com is here.

Canada: UPDATED - Police helicopter forced to land after repeated Class 3A laser attacks

A Durham Regional Police helicopter was forced to land after being repeatedly illuminated by a laser, later determined to be Class 3A (maximum power less than 5 milliwatts). The maximum power allowed to be sold as a pointer in Canada is Class 3A.

The April 21 2012 incident happened in Uxbridge, 75 km northeast of Toronto. It was looking for vandals when struck by a laser numerous times over several minutes. The helicopter set down at a nearby police station, and the pilot was taken to a hospital. He was released with no apparent damage, but a police spokesperson said it could take several days for damage to emerge.

20-year-old Melissa Perry of Uxbridge was arrested, and charged with lessening the ability of a crew member to perform duties, interfering with the duties of a crew member, projecting a bright light at an aircraft, mischief endangering life, assault with a weapon and common nuisance. It is unclear from news reports whether Perry was associated with the vandals.

From DurhamRegion.com, Global Toronto and Canada.com

Analysis from LaserPointerSafety.com: If the laser is really Class 3A (less than 5 mW maximum power), the pilot’s eyes were unharmed. The Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance for a 5 mW laser with a tight 1 milliradian beam is 52 feet. This means that laser safety experts have concluded that no eye injury could occur past 52 feet. If the pilot was airborne, his eyes were likely much farther than 52 feet from the laser. (Global Toronto reported the helicopter was at 5000 feet, but that is very high for vandal surveillance; 500 feet is more reasonable.)
Plus, as explained on the Laser Safety Calculations page, there are additional factors that go into the NOHD. The result of these factors is that a 5 mW laser would have to be within 16.4 feet of a person’s eyes before there was a 50/50 chance of causing a minimally detectable eye injury. This is not opinion; this is scientific fact based on how the NOHD is derived.

UPDATE, NOVEMBER 2012: On September 21 2012, Perry pleaded guilty to one charge of violating the Aviation Act by shining a bright light at an aircraft. She was fined $500. All other charges were dropped by the Crown. From DurhamRegion.com.

Canada: 2 laserings of commercial airplanes in 2 months, near Victoria BC

A green laser beam was pointed at a WestJet flight landing in Victoria (BC) on January 10 2012. Pilots did not look directly at the light. This was the second report of a laser being pointed at a commercial airliner in two months, according to Saanich police. A CTV video report goes into more detail about the incident:



From CTV News

Canada: B.C. man arrested 7 1/2 months after helicopter lasing incident

On April 15 2011, a laser was pointed at a Royal Canadian Mounted Police helicopter in Vancouver, B.C. There was no injury to the pilot or passenger, according to LangleyAdvance.

On December 1 2011, Alexander William Schiller of Langley, B.C. was arrested for the crime. The 30-year-old was charged under the Aeronautics Act with endangering an aircraft by interfering with a crew member, and by creating an airspace hazard. He also faces a criminal charge of mischief. Schiller’s court appearance is scheduled for September 2012.

It is unclear what caused the delay in arresting Schiller, or the delay in bringing him to trial.

Pic 2011-12-01 at 7.38.16 PM
The red “A” locates East 17th Ave. and St. Catherines Street, where Schiller is alleged to have aimed a laser pointer at an RCMP helicopter.


According to a CBC report, “only a handful” of Canadians have been prosecuted. A pilot spokesperson was quoted as saying “The justice system is sort of behind the times on this.”

From CBC News and LangleyAdvance
.

Canada: Man arrested for aiming at Calgary police helicopter

David Palvialok, 35, was arrested for aiming a green laser beam at a police helicopter on October 25 2011. Calgary police were responding to a disturbance when they saw the beam. They tracked the laser and arrested Palvialok. He was charged with obstructing a peace officer, mischief, endangering the safety of an aircraft in flight, and creating a hazard to aviation safety.

From 660 News and CBC News

Canada: Family turns in child for aiming laser pointer at helicopter

A family in Severn Township, Ontario, admitted that they were responsible for an October 7 2011 incident when an Ontario Provincial Police helicopter was twice struck by a green laser beam. A crew member saw the beam in the sky and warned the pilot before the laser directly illuminated the cockpit. The pilot looked away and did not experience flash blindness.

The family came forward after police asked for the public’s assistance in finding the source of the beam. The family said they had just bought the laser pointer, and one of the younger children was pointing it into the sky. The said there was no intent to cause a problem and they now know better.

Because there was no criminal intent, no charges were brought.

From the Barrie Examiner. The paper also carried an earlier article describing the incident and how police were looking for the laser source.

Canada: Calgary laser incidents highlight growing concern

An Air Canada Jazz flight, and a WestJet flight on final approach to Calgary International Airport had their cockpits illuminated by a green laser, on September 18 2011. There were no injuries to the pilots. Police are searching an area between downtown Calgary and 36th Street S.E., but as of October 5 have not found any suspects.

There were 182 laser illuminations in Canada in 2010, according to Transport Canada. Fourteen of these took place in Alberta.

From the
Calgary Herald

Canada: Winnipeg man arrested for aiming laser at police helicopter

A 30-year-old Winnipeg man used a green laser pointer to illuminate a police helicopter four times on August 20 2011. By using “technology on the chopper,” the crew were able to direct officers on the ground. The man was arrested about 10 minutes after the illuminations. He was charged with assault with a weapon and projection of a directed bright light source at an aircraft.

From the Toronto Sun, CJOB 68 and CBC News (which also has photos of the laser pointer and the man being arrested)

Canada: Oshawa teen arrested after lasing copter. UPDATE: Five more teens charged

An 18-year-old was arrested after a “strong” green laser strike on a Durham Regional Police helicopter, on July 29 2011. An officer on the aircraft (not the pilot) experienced “vision problems” and was examined at a local hospital. Robert Roughly was arrested at his home on Dunrobin Court in Oshawa, 60 miles northwest of Toronto.

Pic 2011-08-11 at 6.11.46 AM
Roughly’s home is within a kilometer of Oshawa Airport


The teenager faces the following charges:

  • Project Bright Light Source at Aircraft (Canadian Aviation Act)
  • Interfere with Performance of Duties of any Crew Member (Aeronautics Act)
  • Lessen the Ability of any Crew Member to Perform Duties (Aeronautics Act)
  • Assault with a Weapon Causing Bodily Harm
  • Mischief Endangering Life
  • Common Nuisance
Each charge under the Aeronautics Act has a maximum fine of $100,000 and/or five years in prison.

From
680 News and Oye! Times

UPDATE August 8 2011: Investigators announced the arrests of five more teens: Dale Branton, Alana Capesky, Andrew Capesky, Curtis Lee, and Aaron Mountjoy. Each person is 18 years old. The five teens were charged with the same counts as Roughly (see list above). According to the National Post, “Witness testimony and unspecified investigations led police to allege that the six accused took turns passing the laser around and aiming it at the helicopter.” From CityTV Toronto, Canoe.ca, DurhamRegion.com and the National Post

Canada: $5000 fine for aiming at three aircraft

On July 26 2011, a 39-year-old Calgary man was fined CDN $5000 for aiming a “Class 3” green laser pointer at a small plane, a small jet and a traffic helicopter. Chris Saulnier pleaded guilty to the January 5 2011 illuminations. He was identified via video taken from the helicopter and turned over to the police.

His lawyer said Saulnier had an interest in astronomy, and was “not thinking about the consequences, he’s just thinking and wondering whether his beam can hit what he thought was the belly of the airplane.... In hindsight, he knows the seriousness of it and accepts responsibility...”

From the
Calgary Herald

UPDATE July 28 2011: Representatives of the Calgary Centre of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada said Saulnier was not a RASC member, and did not represent responsible amateur astronomy. More details are here.

Canada: Man gets lower fine, in part because pilot did not lose control

In a case which may have Canadian implications for laser users’ defense, a judge reduced the fine for an Edmonton man charged with creating a hazard to aviation safety.

Provincial Judge Paul Sully said the August 19 2009 incident was "not as serious” as the prosecutor described, since the pilot did not lose control, but instead was "momentarily blinded from viewing his instruments [and] was able to complete his orbits.” In addition, the judge noted that the pilot was familiar with the dangers of laser light.

Judge Sully also rejected the prosecution’s notion that the man should have culpability: “The offender had a momentary loss of common sense which resulted from his failure to recognize the high standard of care needed when handling a laser.”Click to read more...

Canada: UPDATED - 99 cent laser leads to weapons assault charge for Winnipeg man

A man who just bought a laser pointer for 99 cents on eBay, and who wanted to see how far it could go, was arrested for pointing it at a Winnipeg police helicopter on March 9 2011. Global News reported that he hit the female pilot “directly in the eyes” with the green beam.

Sheldon Friesen, 26, faces provincial charges of assault with a weapon, and possible federal charges with a maximum penalty of a CDN $100,000 fine and/or five years in prison.

When asked why he aimed at an aircraft, Friesen said “Just to see the distance. You point it up into the sky and see the beam go forever. I don’t know how far forever is, so I see something in the sky that’s worth reflecting, well why not? .... It was supposed to be for simple entertainment rather than having to cause someone danger like that.”

It took only about five minutes from the time he first aimed at the helicopter, to his arrest by three ground-based units.


Just before his arrest, Sheldon Friesen demonstrates to police officers his laser pointer (green glow at bottom center).

From the Winnipeg Sun, Winnipeg Free Press, and Global News/Global Winnipeg

UPDATE, May 1 2012: Friesen pleaded guilty to directing a bright light source at an aircraft. He was sentenced to 15 hours community service. The judge agreed that he did not realize the danger: “You do seem like you were genuinely surprised by the consequences of your actions.” From the Winnipeg Sun.

Canada: 10-year-old tracks police helicopter

A 10-year-old illuminated a York Regional Police helicopter multiple times with a green laser pointer on Feb. 16 2011. The pilot broke off an active search and “immediately navigated the helicopter to safety” after noticing the green light. Police located the source and talked with the youth’s parents, who had been home during the incident. They were aware the boy had the pointer, but did not know the boy was tracking aircraft with it. Because the youth was under 12, he was not charged. The incident happened in Richmond Hill, Ontario (near Toronto).

York police said there have been four incidents so far in 2011, and more than 12 in 2010.

On Feb. 18 they put out a press release reminding parents that laser pointers are not a toy, and that charges can be brought for illuminating civilian and police aircraft. The charges include:
  • Projection of a bright light source at an aircraft;
  • Endangering the safety of an aircraft;
  • Obstructing police;
  • Mischief endangering life and;
  • Assaulting police.
From the Toronto Star, National Post and YorkRegion.com.

Canada: Calgary "amateur astronomer" charged

A 39-year-old Calgary man was charged after a Jan. 5 2011 incident where a radio station traffic airplane, and a television helicopter, were illuminated by a green laser. Chris Sean Saulnier faces “one count of endangering the safety or security of an aircraft in flight..., two counts of projecting a light source into navigable airspace in such a manner to create a hazard to aviation safety, and two counts of mischief to property.”

Saulnier said he bought the $100 laser for his work as a contractor and as an amateur astronomer. He cooperated with police and was “remorseful and took full responsibility for his actions” according to a police spokesman.

From the
Calgary Herald

Canada: UPDATED - Arrest in Calgary helicopter incident

34-year-old Jason John McConnell of Calgary was arrested Aug. 16 for hitting a police helicopter multiple times with a “high-powered laser”. He faces criminal charges of obstructing a peace officer and mischief endangering life. He is also faces federal charges of projecting a bright light source at an aircraft, and lessening an aircraft crew’s ability to perform its duties.

The Calgary Police Service’s Helicopter Air Watch for Community Safety (HAWC), was on patrol when hit by a green beam at 10:45 pm. The crew then put on protective glasses and began a 30-minute search during which they were hit two more times. During the incident, one runway was closed by the Calgary Airport Authority, as a safety precaution.

Police tracked the beam to McConnell’s home about 10 km (6 mi) away, arrested him and seized what they describe as a “high-powered laser”. McConnell claimed it was an accident: “I was playing with it inside the house and it hit a mirror. It’s not like I was inside pointing it at them. It’s pure coincidence.”

After the incident, the helicopter crew was grounded pending the results of eye tests to determine whether their vision was damaged.

From CBC News, the Vancouver Sun and the Calgary Herald

UPDATE May 31 2011: The Calgary Sun has a short article about initial judicial proceedings against McConnell. The trial phase should begin shortly. From the Calgary Sun.

UPDATE 2 June 19 2012: On June 18 2012, McConnell pleaded guilty to a criminal charge of mischief causing damage to property, and to projecting a bright light at an aircraft to cause a hazard under the Aeronautics Act.
He received a six month conditional sentence followed by six months of probation. The first two months of the conditional term will be under house arrest; the remaining four months he will have a curfew from 10 pm to 5 am. He also must complete 25 hours of community service and undergo counseling. Finally, he will not be allowed to possess laser pointers. Both McConnell’s lawyer and the crown prosecutor agreed that the sentencing conditions were an adequate punishment.
According to his lawyer, McConnell did not realize the seriousness of aiming a laser at an aircraft. He said the incident was due to “basically stupid curiosity.” From the Calgary Sun and Calgary Herald.

Canada: Pilot suffers retinal damage; off work for months

In early September 2009, an air ambulance pilot was illuminated by a laser while transferring a patient to an Ottawa hospital. A news report in early November said that he "suffered retinal damage ... is still off work nearly two months later .... [and] could remain off work for another three months."

It was not clear from the story what type of aircraft -- fixed wing or helicopter -- the pilot was flying at the time.

Captain Barry Wiszniowski of the Air Canada Pilots Association, stated "Our judicial system has to understand the severity of the consequences. It would be catastrophic if a pilot was impaired by a laser and lost all situational awareness."

More statistics and information from
Canadian OH&S News.

Canada: Calgary man fined $1000

A Calgary man charged with endangering a flight by shining a laser beam into the cockpit of an Air Canada flight has been fined $1,000.

David Mackow, 29, who pleaded guilty to the federal charge, was sentenced on Monday and ordered to pay the fine within 30 days or face jail time. He also has to forfeit his laser pointer.

In October 2007, Mackow shone the pointer, commonly used in boardroom presentations, from his Beltline apartment at the flight that was landing in Calgary.

The pilot reported the incident and Calgary police dispatched its HAWCS helicopter to investigate. Mackow then pointed the green beam into the helicopter.

More details are available from
CBC News

Canada: Five "hits" on Toronto approach

An Air Canada Airbus 320, was hit by five laser flashes as it approached Toronto Pearson International Airport. "Zero Five Zero, this is Air Canada Seven Five Four -- We've just taken two green laser hits," the pilot said, according to a recording made of an exchange between the aircraft and air traffic controllers.

CTV Toronto reported that "[t]his is estimated to be the sixth such incident in Toronto in the past year. About a dozen have occurred in Ontario, and more than 30 across Canada."

More details from
CTV.ca

Canada: More incidents; man fined $1000